Generic name: vitamin A (oral/injection) (VYE ta min A)
Brand name: Aquasol A, A-25, A/Fish Oil
Dosage forms: intramuscular solution (50000 units/mL); oral capsule (10000 intl units; 25000 units; 8000 units)
Drug class: Vitamins
Vitamin A is found in foods such as milk, cheese, eggs, butter, fortified margarine, meat, liver, oily saltwater fish, grains, oils, carrots, squash, dark green and yellow vegetables, and fruits such as cantaloupe or apricots. Vitamin A is important for the eyes and skin, the immune system, and for normal growth.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is absorbed with fats in your diet and stored in your body's fatty tissue.
Vitamin A is used to treat vitamin A deficiency.
Vitamin A is possibly effective in preventing cataracts, or slowing the progression of retinitis pigmentosa (an eye disease that causes damage to the retina). Vitamin A is also possibly effective in preventing diarrhea in pregnant women who are malnourished.
Vitamin A may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Never use more than the recommended dose of vitamin A. An overdose of vitamin A can cause serious or life-threatening side effects.
Do not use vitamin A without medical advice if you are pregnant. Vitamin A can cause birth defects if used in large doses.
Before taking this medicine
Ask a doctor or pharmacist if vitamin A is safe to use if you have ever had:
- a zinc or iron deficiency;
- celiac disease;
- kidney disease;
- liver problems such as cirrhosis or jaundice (yellow of the skin or eyes);
- anemia (low red blood cells);
- short gut syndrome;
- an infection in your intestines;
- cystic fibrosis;
- a pancreas disorder;
- if you are malnourished; or
- if your body does not absorb fats properly.
Do not use vitamin A without medical advice if you are pregnant. Although some vitamin A is needed for the normal development of a baby, vitamin A can cause birth defects if used in large doses. You may need to use a prenatal vitamin specially formulated for pregnant women.
Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are breastfeeding. Your dose needs may be different while you are nursing.
How should I use vitamin A?
Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.
Vitamin A oral is taken by mouth.
Vitamin A injection is injected into a muscle. A healthcare provider will give you this injection if you are unable to take the medicine by mouth, and can teach you how to properly use the medication by yourself.
Read and carefully follow any Instructions for Use provided with your medicine. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you don't understand all instructions. Prepare an injection only when you are ready to give it.
The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A increases with age. Follow your healthcare provider's instructions. You may also consult the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database (formerly "Recommended Daily Allowances") listings for more information.
A child's dose of vitamin A is based on the age of the child. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about giving vitamin A to a child.
Swallow a vitamin A capsule whole and do not crush, chew, break, or open it.
Eating fatty foods can help your body absorb vitamin A.
Never use more than the recommended dose of vitamin A. Avoid taking more than one vitamin product at the same time unless your doctor tells you to. Taking similar vitamin products together can result in a vitamin overdose or serious side effects.
The total daily amount of vitamin A you receive includes vitamin A in the foods you eat combined with taking vitamin A as a supplement.
Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.
Call your doctor for instructions if you miss a vitamin A injection.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. An overdose of vitamin A can cause serious or life-threatening side effects.
Overdose symptoms may include dizziness, drowsiness, lack of energy, feeling irritable, vision changes, severe headache or pain behind your eyes, upper stomach pain, vomiting, dark urine, or yellowing of the skin or eyes.
What should while taking vitamin A?
Avoid drinking alcohol. It may increase your risk of liver damage while taking vitamin A.
Avoid taking more than one vitamin product at the same time unless your doctor tells you to.
Avoid taking orlistat (alli, Xenical) or mineral oil while you are taking vitamin A.
Vitamin A side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have:
- fever, sweating, unusual tiredness;
- mood changes;
- vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite;
- changes in your menstrual periods;
- confusion or feeling irritable;
- double vision;
- bleeding gums, mouth pain;
- a seizure; or
- hair loss, peeling skin, cracked skin around your mouth, or skin discoloration.
Taking high doses of vitamin A may increase the risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture, especially in older adults and postmenopausal women.
In children, high doses of vitamin A may cause:
- growth problems in a child;
- severe drowsiness, loss of consciousness;
- vision problems;
- fever, chills;
- cough with mucus, chest pain, trouble breathing;
- vomiting, diarrhea; or
- peeling skin.
Less serious side effects may be more likely, and you may have none at all.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What other drugs will affect vitamin A?
Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using vitamin A with any other medications, especially:
- orlistat (alli, Xenical);
- birth control pills;
- an antibiotic--doxycycline, minocycline, sarecycline, or tetracycline; or
- a retinoid--acitretin, isotretinoin, tretinoin, Retin-A, Soriatane, and others.
This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect vitamin A, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.