Generic name: linezolid (oral/injection) (lin EZ oh lid)
Brand name: Zyvox
Drug class: Oxazolidinone antibiotics
Zyvox (linezolid) is an oxazolidinone antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body. Linezolid is also an MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor.
Zyvox is used to treat different types of bacterial infections, such as pneumonia, skin infections, and infections that are resistant to other antibiotics.
Zyvox may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Zyvox. Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use.
Do not use this medicine if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days, such as isocarboxazid, linezolid, methylene blue injection, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, and others.
Many drugs can interact with linezolid. Before using this medicine, tell your doctor about all other medications you use. You may need to stop using certain medicines before using Zyvox (in some cases for up to 5 weeks before starting treatment).
During your treatment with Zyvox, do not start or stop using any other medications unless your doctor tells you to. You should not use this medicine at is resistant to medication if you have untreated or uncontrolled high blood pressure, a carcinoid tumor, adrenal gland tumor, or a severely overactive thyroid. If you take an antidepressant or psychiatric medication, call your doctor right away if you have signs of a serious drug interaction, including: confusion, memory problems, feeling hyperactive (mentally or physically), loss of coordination, muscle twitching, shivering, sweating, diarrhea, and/or fever.
Before taking this medicine
You should not use Zyvox if you are allergic to linezolid.
Do not use linezolid if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. A dangerous drug interaction could occur. MAO inhibitors include isocarboxazid, methylene blue injection, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, and others.
Tell your doctor if you also take stimulant medicine, opioid medicine, herbal products, or medicine for depression, mental illness, Parkinson's disease, migraine headaches, serious infections, or prevention of nausea and vomiting. An interaction with linezolid could cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome.
To make sure Zyvox is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have ever had:
- high blood pressure;
- a thyroid disorder;
- a carcinoid tumor;
- bone marrow suppression or a weak immune system;
- kidney or liver disease;
- pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland tumor);
- seizures; or
- if you use a catheter.
Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
If you are breastfeeding, tell your doctor if you notice diarrhea or vomiting in the nursing baby.
Zyvox liquid (oral suspension) contains phenylalanine and could be harmful if you have phenylketonuria (PKU).
How is Zyvox used?
Use Zyvox exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.
Zyvox tablets or oral suspension can be taken with or without food.
Zyvox injection is given as an infusion into a vein. A healthcare provider will give your first dose and may teach you how to properly use the medication by yourself.
Prepare your injection only when you are ready to give it. Do not use if the medicine has particles in it. Call your pharmacist for new medicine.
Read and carefully follow any Instructions for Use provided with your medicine. Do not use Zyvox if you don't understand all instructions for proper use. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions.
Gently mix the oral suspension (liquid) by turning the bottle upside down 3 to 5 times. Do not shake. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon).
You will need frequent medical tests. Your vision and blood pressure may also need to be checked often.
Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time, even if your symptoms quickly improve. Skipping doses can increase your risk of infection that is resistant to medication. Linezolid will not treat a viral infection such as the flu or a common cold.
Store all forms of Zyvox at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Do not freeze. Throw away any liquid not used within 21 days.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Use the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not use two doses at one time.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
What should I avoid while using Zyvox?
Avoid taking anti-diarrhea medicine without first asking your doctor. Diarrhea may be a sign of a new infection.
Eating tyramine while you are using linezolid can raise your blood pressure to dangerous levels. Avoid foods that have a high level of tyramine, such as:
- aged cheeses or meats;
- pickled or fermented meats, smoked or air-dried meats;
- soy sauce;
- tap beer (alcoholic and nonalcoholic);
- red wine; or
- any meat, cheese, or other protein-based food that has been improperly stored.
You should be very familiar with the list of foods you must avoid while you are using Zyvox.
Zyvox side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction to Zyvox (hives, difficult breathing, swelling in your face or throat) or a severe skin reaction (fever, sore throat, burning eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash with blistering and peeling).
Call your doctor at once if you have:
- vision problems, changes in color vision;
- severe stomach pain, diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
- a seizure;
- sweating, feeling anxious or shaky (may be signs of low blood sugar);
- high levels of serotonin in the body - agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- lactic acidosis - unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, stomach pain, vomiting, irregular heart rate, dizziness, feeling cold, or feeling very weak or tired; or
- low blood cell counts - fever, chills, tiredness, weakness, confusion, mouth sores, skin sores, easy bruising, unusual bleeding, pale skin, cold hands and feet, feeling light-headed or short of breath.
Seek medical attention right away if you have symptoms of serotonin syndrome, such as: agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, shivering, fast heart rate, muscle stiffness, twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.
Common Zyvox side effects may include:
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- skin rash;
- anemia (low red blood cells); or
- headache, dizziness.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What other drugs will affect Zyvox?
Some medicines can interact with linezolid and cause a serious condition called serotonin syndrome. Be sure your doctor knows if you also take stimulant medicine, opioid medicine, herbal products, or medicine for depression, mental illness, Parkinson's disease, migraine headaches, serious infections, or prevention of nausea and vomiting. Ask your doctor before making any changes in how or when you take your medications.
Many drugs can interact with linezolid, and some drugs should not be used together. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed in this medication guide. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.