Macrobid (nitrofurantoin) is an antibiotic that fights bacteria in the body.
Macrobid is used to treat urinary tract infections.
Macrobid may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
You should not take Macrobid if you have severe kidney disease, urination problems, or a history of jaundice or liver problems caused by nitrofurantoin.
Do not take Macrobid if you are in the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy.
Before taking this medicine
You should not take Macrobid if you are allergic to nitrofurantoin, or if you have:
- severe kidney disease;
- a history of jaundice or liver problems caused by taking nitrofurantoin;
- if you are urinating less than usual or not at all; or
- if you are in the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy.
Do not take Macrobid if you are in the last 2 to 4 weeks of pregnancy.
To make sure Macrobid is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
- kidney disease;
- an electrolyte imbalance or vitamin B deficiency;
- glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency; or
- any type of debilitating disease.
FDA pregnancy category B. Macrobid is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby during early pregnancy. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment.
Nitrofurantoin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are taking Macrobid.
Macrobid should not be given to a child younger than 1 month old.
How should I take Macrobid?
Take Macrobid exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Take Macrobid with food.
Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure liquid medicine with the dosing syringe provided, or with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.
You may mix your liquid dose with water, milk, or fruit juice to make it easier to swallow. Drink the entire mixture right away.
Use this medicine for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Skipping doses may also increase your risk of further infection that is resistant to antibiotics. Macrobid will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.
Macrobid is usually given for 5 days in females and 7 days in males for uncomplicated UTI.
If you use this medicine long-term, for prevention of UTI, you may need frequent medical tests at your doctor's office.
Macrobid can cause unusual results with certain lab tests for glucose (sugar) in the urine. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using Macrobid.
Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
What to avoid
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or has blood in it, call your doctor. Do not use any medicine to stop the diarrhea unless your doctor has told you to.
Avoid using antacids without your doctor's advice. Use only the type of antacid your doctor recommends. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb nitrofurantoin.
Macrobid side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to Macrobid:hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have:
- diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
- sudden chest pain or discomfort, wheezing, dry cough or hack;
- new or worsening cough, trouble breathing;
- fever, chills, body aches, tiredness, unexplained weight loss;
- numbness, tingling, or pain in your hands or feet;
- liver problems--nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, tired feeling, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes); or
- lupus-like syndrome--joint pain or swelling with fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, chest pain, vomiting, unusual thoughts or behavior, and patchy skin color.
Serious side effects may be more likely in older adults and those who are ill or debilitated.
Common Macrobid side effects may include:
- headache, dizziness;
- gas, upset stomach;
- mild diarrhea; or
- vaginal itching or discharge.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088
Usual Adult Dose for Cystitis:
Regular release: 50 to 100 mg orally 4 times a day for 1 week or for at least 3 days after urine sterility is obtained
Dual release: 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days
Usual Adult Dose for Cystitis Prophylaxis
Regular release: 50 to 100 mg orally once a day at bedtime
Usual Pediatric Dose for Cystitis
1 month or older: 5 to 7 mg/kg/day (up to 400 mg/day) orally in 4 divided doses
Greater than 12 years: 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days
Usual Pediatric Dose for Cystitis Prophylaxis
1 month or older: 1 to 2 mg/kg/day (up to 100 mg/day) orally in 1 to 2 divided doses
What other drugs will affect Macrobid?
Other drugs may interact with nitrofurantoin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.
Side effects requiring immediate medical attention
Along with its needed effects, nitrofurantoin (the active ingredient contained in Macrobid) may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking nitrofurantoin:
- Changes in facial skin color
- chest pain
- general feeling of discomfort or illness
- joint or muscle pain
- shortness of breath
- skin rash
- sudden trouble in swallowing or breathing
- swelling of the face, mouth, hands, or feet
- troubled breathing
- Black, tarry stools
- blood in the urine or stools
- burning, numbness, tingling, or painful sensations
- pinpoint red spots on the skin
- sore throat
- unsteadiness or awkwardness
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet
- Abdominal or stomach pain
- blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin and mucous membranes
- blue-yellow color blindness
- bluish color of the fingernails, lips, skin, palms, or nail beds
- blurred vision or loss of vision, with or without eye pain
- bulging soft spot on the head of an infant
- change in the ability to see colors, especially blue or yellow
- cracks in the skin
- darkening of the urine
- decreased vision
- diarrhea, watery and severe, which may also be bloody
- eye pain
- general tiredness and weakness
- light-colored stools
- loss of appetite
- loss of heat from the body
- mental depression
- mood or mental changes
- nausea or vomiting
- pale skin
- pale stools
- red skin lesions, often with a purple center
- red, irritated eyes
- red, swollen skin
- red, thickened, or scaly skin
- skin rash
- sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
- swollen or painful glands
- tenderness of salivary glands
- unpleasant breath odor
- upper right abdominal pain
- visual changes
- vomiting of blood
- wheezing or tightness in the chest
- yellow eyes or skin
Side effects not requiring immediate medical attention
Some side effects of nitrofurantoin may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
Incidence not known
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
- lack or loss of strength
- loss of hair, temporary
- sensation of spinning
- uncontrolled eye movements